In 218 AD, he participated in Liu Bei's campaign to conquer Hanzhong and was sent to barricade Mamingge (馬鳴閣). Chen Shi was attacked and defeated by Xu Huang. In 229, he continued to participate in the Northern Campaigns and was enumerated for his services and valor. He marched with Zhuge Liang against Guo Huai's army but suffered defeat. It is said that Chen Shi retreated to the west and no other records exist for him.

The Book of Jin and Chen Shou's records make no mention of Chen Shi's relation to Chen Shou. These sources instead mention his father to be an unnamed officer who served Ma Su. When his master was punished, his father was similarly disgraced and patronized. One source mentions that he was forced to shave his hair and another says that he was subjected to castration. Rumors of Chen Shi's relation to the author is believed to have began when the chronicles were being compiled. However, the full truth behind the matter of their relation is unknown.